Two years ago chekhov writes when layevsky fell in love with Nadyezhda fyodorovna it seemed to him that he had only to join his life to hers go to the caucasus and he would be saved from the vulgarity and emptiness of his life; now. Like many modern writers and painters Chekhov doesnt depict reality as it is but reality as it is perceived. Instead of describing a womans personality Chekhov describes the impression that she made on people; he says of one of his characters that since she was always seen with her dog people thought of her as the lady with the dog. Chekhov believed that art should be realistic and true to life; in this respect hes similar to other late-nineteenth-century writers such as Ibsen Flaubert and Zola. Chekhovs specialty is detail; in Chekhovs stories the parts are more important than the whole. Chekhov depicts the absurdity of life as Kafka does.
Elements of the gothic novel
The individual repeats the religious history of mankind by beginning life with the earliest forms of religion animism and totemism; that is he begins life by believing that inanimate objects and animals have feelings and thoughts similar to his own. The individual repeats the literary history of mankind by beginning life with the earliest forms of literature fairy tales and animal fables. By age ten weve graduated from fairy tales to myths just as mankind once graduated from fairy tales to myths. At fifteen were able to read early novelists like defoe and Dumas. At twenty were able to read later novelists like dostoyevsky and Tolstoy. Not until twenty-five are we able to read twentieth-century novelists like proust and joyce. Chekhov depicts people whose romantic visions are shattered by day-to-day living. No matter what theyre doing homework they always wish that they were doing something else and no matter where they are they always wish that they were somewhere else. They remind one of Socrates comment about marriage: if you get married youll regret it and if you dont get married youll regret that too. Chekhovs characters also remind one of Flauberts character Madame bovary who found loan that reality never lived up to her expectations; Chekhov must have been influenced by Flaubert. Layevsky a character in Chekhovs story The duel is typical of Chekhovs characters.
(As Robert Frost said poetry is what gets lost in translation.) goethes best works for those who read him in translation are his autobiography and his conversations as recorded by Eckermann. His autobiography is as pleasurable to read as rousseaus autobiography and his conversations with Eckermann are more interesting than Boswells Life of Johnson. Letters During the early 1500s collections of Erasmus letters friendship were in greater demand than any other book. Voltaires letters from Ferney were so lively and witty that they were handed around Paris. It is said that Voltaires writing is at its best in his letters. Letter-writing affords writers a freedom that they arent afforded by any other type of writing. The most interesting literature is the most personal literature: biographies autobiographies diaries letters and conversations. One of the most valuable services that a writer can perform for a reader is to call his attention to good writers. Maturing Taste Psychologists often say that the individual repeats in his own development the development of the human race as a whole.
The best culture respects the old classics but it also respects the pleasure that contemporary artists provide. The best culture avoids the sterility of scholar culture and also avoids the barbarism of popular culture. Modern culture isnt healthy it isnt a culture of educated laymen. Modern culture is mother divided between sterile scholar culture and barbaric popular culture. Goethe goethes novels have little interest for modern readers. Gide described one of goethes novels as unbelievably silly; Gide said that goethe could not have written it at present.(5) like goethes novels Scotts novels strike modern readers as dull though they were once considered immortal classics. There is a certain progression the in the history of the novel a progression that has relegated many early novelists including Scott and goethe to obscurity. The history of the novel casts doubt on the old theory that art unlike science is timeless and never progresses. Goethes poetry like most poetry holds little attraction for those who read it in translation.
Eastern painting is more enjoyable to westerners than Eastern literature. The beauty of fine art reaches further and lasts longer than the beauty of literature. And the beauty of music lasts longer than the beauty of fine art. Music is the most universal the most timeless of the arts. Educated laymen A culture of scholars isnt a healthy culture. A culture that is preoccupied with recapturing the faded beauty of old classics isnt a healthy culture. But a popular culture that appeals chiefly to uneducated people is also unhealthy. The best culture is a culture that appeals to educated laymen.
Undergraduate Studies, writing, proficiency
Dissatisfaction with oneself coupled with reverence for someone else spurs one to great accomplishments. Envy has positive effects when it aims not to lower someone else to your level but rather to raise yourself to someone elses level. Every great man was once a youth who envied someone else was dissatisfied with himself and was spurred to great accomplishments by his envy and dissatisfaction. Every great man was once a youth who revered greatness. What is the purpose wimpy of literature? The purpose of literature like the purpose of art in general is to make life more palatable to people more interesting richer. Art provides pleasure stimulation inspiration.
Art doesnt have to teach it doesnt have to be moral or religious or political or philosophical. There are great imaginative writers who dont teach us anything just as a composer of music doesnt teach us anything. Beauty is neither universal nor timeless it fades with distance and time. An imaginative writer from ancient Greece has little appeal for most modern readers; ancient Greek writers appeal only to scholars. Likewise Shakespeare will someday appeal only to scholars. Westerners find little enjoyment in Eastern culture; the poets of China and Japan are enjoyed only by a few Western scholars.
(The saying opposites attract may apply to love but it doesnt apply to friendship; friendship is based on kinship on similarity of character.) Sometimes reading leads to actual friendship friendship between living people; Emerson and Carlyle for example became friends after Emerson read Carlyles writings. More often however reading leads to friendship at a distance—a distance in space or a distance in time. The writer is sometimes a father figure rather than a friend. Shakespeare was a father figure to goethe and Schopenhauer was a father figure to nietzsche. When a young reader idolizes a writer he often wants to imitate the writer to model his whole life after the writer.
The young Victor Hugo for example said that he wanted to be Chateaubriand or nothing. The young reader envies the accomplishments of the writer he admires he wants to accomplish as much himself and hes discouraged when he thinks of the great distance that separates him from the writer he admires. Like a hiker setting out to climb. Everest he feels that he must work hard and strain himself to the breaking point in order to reach his goal. The sons of today are the fathers of tomorrow and the youth who reveres a writer may someday become a revered writer himself. Nietzsche realized that he would someday be an idolized and envied father figure just as Schopenhauer had been a father figure to him. Thus nietzsche makes the young man say to zarathustra it is envy of you which has destroyed.(4) While self-satisfaction makes life easy and pleasant envy makes life difficult and painful. Greatness is forged in suffering.
Evaluating Written Communications: Elements
If style is pursued for its own sake it becomes artificial; style should be the empire vehicle of thought. In order to write well one must have something to say. If one has something to say if one has profound ideas and strong convictions style comes naturally. Great thinkers are great stylists and great stylists are great thinkers. Plato kierkegaard and nietzsche are considered models of Greek style danish style and German style respectively and theyre also the deepest thinkers that those three nations have produced. Emerson is the deepest thinker that America has produced and also Americas best prose writer. Nicknames store names and advertising are the poetry of everyday life and one finds in them many of the techniques that one finds in poetry. Reader and Writer reading is often a kind of friendship. The reader gets to know the author and if he likes him if he feels akin to him a kind of friendship develops.
This passage also uses exclamation. In one line of poetry virgil uses three techniques: he repeats a word he addresses someone and summary he asks a question: Ah Corydon Corydon what madness seized you?(3) In a passage in his novel The castle kafka uses four techniques: he addresses someone asks. Its about you that he he wants to speak to Klamm to Klamm! Best Style Though its possible to lay down rules for style though its possible to describe the ideal style its impossible to teach someone to write great prose. Style is an expression of personality. Great prose writers dont follow rules they follow their taste. Great prose writers are born not made. Style and content are of equal importance; literature is a combination of style and content. Only a philistine would overlook style and only a pedant would overlook content.
addresses someone gives orders asks questions makes exclamations and repeats certain words. Addressing someone is sometimes described as the vocative case while ordering someone telling someone what to do is sometimes described as the imperative case. Shakespeare uses the vocative case followed by the imperative case when he makes Juliet say romeo doff thy name. Melville gives us an example of exclamation when he writes Nantucket! Take out your map and look. This passage also uses the imperative case. Thoreau gives us an example of the repetition of certain words when he writes Simplicity simplicity simplicity! I say let your affairs be as two or three and not a hundred or a thousand.
Beauty of style wrote Plato and harmony and grace and good rhythm depend on simplicity—i mean the true simplicity of a biography rightly and nobly ordered mind and character.(1) If there is one quality that is lacking in modern art in modern architecture and in the. Clarity serious writers strive to be understood strive for clarity. Bad writers on the other hand arent afraid of being obscure as long as they can make the reader think What an extensive vocabulary! The surest sign of bad prose is the use of uncommon words where common words would suffice. Clarity can be achieved by the repetition of certain words. Repetition is more comprehensible for the reader than variety. As Anatole France said you will find in my paragraphs a word that comes over and over again. That is the leit-motiv of the symphony. Be careful not to delete and replace it by a synonym.(2) One of the most common stylistic mistakes is avoiding repetition and replacing a previously-used word with a synonym.
Noaa ocean Explorer: phaedra 2006: Archeology
Elements Of Writing Essay research Paper. A good book is the offspring of many fathers and the father of many offspring. Writers goal by art to attain simplicity. A good style is simple and powerful like healthy a wave breaking on a beach. Re knowing that many writers make the mistake of expressing simple things in a complex way gave this advice to writers: if you want to say that it is raining say: It is raining. Simplicity is the mark of good prose and its also a virtue in other branches of culture such as architecture. The chief virtue of Greek architecture is simplicity. The Greeks regarded simplicity as both a cultural virtue and a moral virtue.