Fakhr-al-Din became too strong for his Turkish sovereign in Constantinople. He went so far in 1608 as to sign a commercial treaty with duke ferdinand i of Tuscany containing secret military clauses. The sultan then sent a force against him, and he was compelled to flee the land and seek refuge in the courts of Tuscany and Naples in 16 respectively. In 1618 political changes in the Ottoman sultanate had resulted in the removal of many enemies of fakhr-al-Din from power, signaling the prince's triumphant return to lebanon soon afterwards. Through a clever policy of bribery and warfare, he extended his domains to cover all of modern Lebanon, some of Syria and northern Galilee. In 1632 küçük ahmet Pasha was named Lord of Damascus. Küçük ahmet Pasha was a rival of fakhr-al-Din and a friend of the sultan Murad iv, who ordered the pasha and the sultanate's navy to attack lebanon and depose fakhr-al-Din. This time the prince decided to remain in Lebanon and resist the offensive, but the death of his son Ali in Wadi al-taym was the beginning of his defeat.
Master of divinity, faith
labeled them as infidels and argued that, even though they might behave like muslims on the outside, this is no more than a pretense. He also declared that confiscation of Druze property and even the death sentence would conform to the laws of Islam. 63 Consequently, the 16th and 17th centuries were to witness a succession of armed Druze rebellions against the Ottomans, countered by repeated Ottoman punitive expeditions against the Chouf, in which the Druze population of the area was severely depleted and many villages destroyed. These military measures, severe as they were, did not succeed in reducing the local Druze to the required degree of subordination. This led the Ottoman government to agree to an arrangement whereby the different address nahiyes (districts) of the Chouf would be granted in iltizam fiscal concession to one of the region's amirs, or leading chiefs, leaving the maintenance of law and order and the collection. This arrangement was to provide the cornerstone for the privileged status which ultimately came to be enjoyed by the whole of mount Lebanon, Druze and Christian areas alike. 61 ma'an dynasty edit main article: maan family with the advent of the Ottoman Turks and the conquest of Syria by sultan Selim i in 1516, the ma'ans were acknowledged by the new rulers as the feudal lords of southern Lebanon. Druze villages spread and prospered in that region, which under ma'an leadership so flourished that it acquired the generic term of Jabal bayt-ma'an (the mountain home of the ma'an) or Jabal al-Druze. The latter title has since been usurped by the hawran region, which since the middle of the 19th century has proven a haven of refuge to Druze emigrants from Lebanon and has become the headquarters of Druze power. Page needed Under fakhr-al-Dīn ii (Fakhreddin ii the Druze dominion increased until it included Lebanon-Phoenicia and almost all Syria, extending from the edge of the Antioch plain in the north to safad in the south, with a part of the syrian desert dominated by fakhr-al-Din's castle. The ruins of this castle still stand on a steep hill overlooking the town.
The origin of the family goes back to a prince ma'an who made his appearance in the lebanon in the days of the 'abbasid caliph al-Mustarshid (111835 AD). The ma'ans chose for their abode the Chouf District in south-western Lebanon (southern healthy mount Lebanon governorate overlooking the maritime plain between beirut and Sidon, and made their headquarters in baaqlin, which is still a leading Druze village. They were invested with feudal authority by sultan Nur ad-Din and furnished respectable contingents to the muslim ranks in their struggle against the Crusaders. Page needed persecution during the mamluk and Ottoman period edit having cleared Syria of the Franks, the mamluk sultans of Egypt turned their attention to the schismatic Muslims of Syria. In 1305, after the issuing of a fatwa by the scholar Ibn taymiyyah calling for jihad against all non- sunni muslims like the Druze, alawites, ismaili, and Twelver Shia muslims, al-Malik al-Nasir inflicted a disastrous defeat on the Druze at Keserwan and forced outward compliance. Later, under the Ottoman, they were severely attacked at saoufar in 1585 after the Ottomans claimed that they assaulted their caravans near Tripoli. Page needed As a result of the Ottoman experience with the rebellious Druze, the word Durzi in Turkish came, and continues, to mean someone who is the ultimate thug. 62 One influential Islamic sage of that time who?
60 In 1043 Baha' ad-Din declared that the sect would no longer accept new adherents, and since that time proselytization has been prohibited. 47 60 Position of Druze showing where it originates. (Note: kaysani's Imam Hanafiyyah is descendant of Ali from Ali's wife Khawlah, not Fatimah) During the Crusades edit It was during the period of Crusader rule in Syria (10991291) that the Druze first emerged into the full light of history in the Gharb review region. As powerful warriors serving the muslim rulers of Damascus against the Crusades, the Druze were given the task of keeping watch over the crusaders in the seaport of beirut, with the aim of preventing them from making any encroachments inland. Subsequently, the Druze chiefs of the Gharb placed their considerable military experience at the disposal of the mamluk rulers of Egypt (12501516 first, to assist them in putting an end to what remained of Crusader rule in coastal Syria, and later to help them safeguard. 61 In the early period of the Crusader era, the Druze feudal power was in the hands of two families, the tanukhs and the Arslans. From their fortresses in the Gharb area (now in Aley district ) of southern mount Lebanon governorate, the tanukhs led their incursions into the Phoenician coast and finally succeeded in holding beirut and the marine plain against the Franks. Because of their fierce battles with the Crusaders, the Druzes earned the respect of the sunni muslim caliphs and thus gained important political powers. After the middle of the twelfth century, the ma'an family superseded the tanukhs in Druze leadership.
For the next seven years, the Druze faced extreme persecution by the new caliph, al-Zahir, who wanted to eradicate the faith. 60 This was the result of a power struggle inside of the fatimid empire in which the Druze were viewed with suspicion because of their refusal to recognize the new caliph, Ali az-zahir, as their Imam. Many spies, mainly the followers of Ad-Darazi, joined the Unitarian movement in order to infiltrate the Druze community. The spies set about agitating trouble and soiling the reputation of the Druze. This resulted in friction with the new caliph who clashed militarily with the Druze community. The clashes ranged from Antioch to Alexandria, where tens of thousands of Druze were slaughtered by the fatimid army. The largest massacre was at Antioch, where 5,000 Druze religious leaders were killed, followed by that of Aleppo. As a result, the faith went underground in hope of survival, as those captured were either forced to renounce their faith or be killed. Druze survivors "were found principally in southern Lebanon and Syria." In 1038, two years after the death of al-Zahir, the Druze movement was able to resume because the new leadership that replaced him had friendly political ties with at least one prominent Druze leader.
The lydian Center for Innovative healthcare
53 Al-hakim became a central figure in the Druze faith even though his own religious position was disputed among scholars. John Esposito states that al-hakim believed soil that "he was not only the divinely appointed religio-political leader but also the cosmic intellect linking God with creation 54 while others like nissim Dana and Mordechai nisan state that he is perceived as the manifestation and the reincarnation. Page needed some Druze and non-Druze scholars like samy Swayd and Sami makarem state that this confusion is due to confusion about the role of the early preacher ad-Darazi, whose teachings the Druze rejected as heretical. 56 These sources assert that al-hakim rejected ad-Darazi's claims of divinity, 47 57 page needed and ordered the elimination of his movement while supporting that of Hamza ibn Ali. 59 Al-hakim disappeared one night while out on his evening ride presumably assassinated, perhaps at the behest of his formidable elder sister Sitt al-Mulk.
The Druze believe he went into Occultation with Hamza ibn Ali and three other prominent preachers, leaving the care of the "Unitarian missionary movement" to a new leader, Al-Muqtana baha'uddin (also spelled Baha' ad-Din). Closing of the faith edit Al-hakim was replaced by his underage son, 'alī az-zahir. The Unitarian Druze movement, which existed in the fatimid Caliphate, acknowledged az-zahir as the caliph, essay but followed Hamzah as its Imam. 47 The young caliph's regent, sitt al-Mulk, ordered the army to destroy the movement in 1021. At the same time, bahā'a ad-Dīn as-Samuki was assigned the leadership of the Unitarian movement by hamza bin Ali. 47 The chart below shows bifurcation point from where Druze movement started. It indicates the position of the Druze relative to Shia islam and its branches, such as the Ismaili and Twelvers.
The faith was preached by hamza ibn 'Alī ibn Ahmad, an Ismaili mystic and scholar. He came to Egypt in 1014 and assembled a group of scholars and leaders from across the world to establish the Unitarian movement. The order's meetings were held in the raydan Mosque, near the Al-hakim Mosque. 52 In 1017, hamza officially revealed the Druze faith and began to preach the Unitarian doctrine. Hamza gained the support of the fātimid caliph al-hakim, who issued a decree promoting religious freedom prior to the declaration of the divine call. Remove ye the causes of fear and estrangement from yourselves.
Do away with the corruption of delusion and conformity. Be ye certain that the Prince of Believers hath given unto you free will, and hath spared you the trouble of disguising and concealing your true beliefs, so that when ye work ye may keep your deeds pure for God. He hath done thus so that when you relinquish your previous beliefs and doctrines ye shall not indeed lean on such causes of impediments and pretensions. By conveying to you the reality of his intention, the Prince of Believers hath spared you any excuse for doing. He hath urged you to declare your belief openly. Ye are now safe from any hand which may bring harm unto you. Ye now may find rest in his assurance ye shall not be wronged. Let those who are present convey this message unto the absent so that it may be known by both the distinguished and the common people. It shall thus become a rule to mankind; and divine wisdom shall prevail for all the days to come.
Frankenstein Thesis Statements and Essay topics
47 Some authorities see in the name "Druze" a descriptive epithet, derived from Arabic dāresah those who study. Others have speculated that the word comes from the persian word Darazo ( "bliss or from Shaykh Hussayn ad-Darazī, who was one of the early converts to the faith. 49 In the early stages of the movement, the word "Druze" is rarely mentioned by historians, and in Druze religious texts only the word Muwaidūn Unitarian appears. The only early Arab historian who mentions the Druze is the eleventh century Christian scholar Yahya of Antioch, who clearly refers to the heretical group created by ad-Darazī rather than the followers of Hamza ibn 'Alī. 49 As for Western sources, benjamin of Tudela, the jewish traveler who passed through Lebanon in or around 1165, was one of the first European writers to refer to the Druzes by name. The word Dogziyin Druzes occurs in an early hebrew edition of his travels, but it is clear that this is a scribal error. Be that as it may, he described the Druze as "mountain dwellers, monotheists, who believe in 'soul eternity' and reincarnation ". 50 he also stated that "they loved the jews". 51 Early paperwork history edit The Druze faith began as a movement in Ismailism that was opposed to certain religious and philosophical ideologies that were present during that epoch.
Although the Druze consider ad-Darazī a heretic, the name has been used to identify them. Before becoming public, the movement was secretive and roles held closed meetings in what was known as Sessions of Wisdom. During this stage a dispute occurred between ad-Darazi and Hamza bin Ali mainly concerning ad-Darazi's ghuluww exaggeration which refers to the belief that God was incarnated in human beings (especially ' ali and his descendants, including Al-hakim bi-Amr Allah, who was the caliph at the. In 1016 ad-Darazi and his followers openly proclaimed their beliefs and called people to join them, causing riots in cairo against the Unitarian movement including Hamza bin Ali and his followers. This led to the suspension of the movement for one year and the expulsion of ad-Darazi and his supporters. 46 Although the Druze religious books describe ad-Darazi as the "insolent one" and as the "calf" who is narrow-minded and hasty, the name "Druze" is still used for identification and for historical reasons. In 1018 ad-Darazi was assassinated for his teachings; some sources claim that he was executed by Al-hakim bi-Amr Allah.
they are known to form close-knit, cohesive communities which do not fully allow non-Druze in, though they themselves integrate fully in their adopted homelands. Contents Location edit Druze people reside primarily in Syria, lebanon, Israel and Jordan. 40 41 The Institute of Druze studies estimates that forty to fifty percent of Druze live in Syria, thirty to forty percent in Lebanon, six to seven percent in Israel, and one or two percent in Jordan. About two percent of the Druze population are also scattered within other countries in the middle east. 40 Large communities of Druze also live outside the middle east, in Australia, canada, europe, latin America (mainly venezuela, colombia and Brazil dubious discuss the United States, and West Africa. They use the Arabic language and follow a social pattern very similar to those of the other peoples of the levant (eastern Mediterranean). 43 The number of Druze people worldwide is between 800,000 and one million, with the vast majority residing in the levant. 44 History edit Etymology edit The name Druze is derived from the name of Muhammad bin Ismail Nashtakin ad-Darazī (from Persian darzi, "seamster who was an early preacher.
31 Although dwarfed by other, larger communities, really the Druze community played an important role in shaping the history of the levant, and continues to play a large political role there. As a religious minority in every country they live in, they have frequently experienced persecution, except in Lebanon and Israel where Druze judges, parliamentarians, diplomats, and doctors occupy the highest echelons of society. Even though the faith originally developed out of Ismaili Islam, druze are not considered Muslims, although Al Azhar of Egypt recognizes them as one of the Islamic sects akin to Shiite muslims. Fatimid Caliph Ali az-zahir, whose father al-hakim is a key figure in the Druze faith, was particularly harsh, causing the death of many Druze in Antioch, aleppo, and northern Syria. Persecution flared up during the rule of the mamluks and Ottomans. Most recently, druze were targeted by the Islamic State of Iraq and the levant and Al-qaeda 37 in order to cleanse syria and neighboring countries of non-Islamic influence. 38 The Druze faith is one of the major religious groups in the levant, with between 800,000 and a million adherents. They are found primarily in Syria, lebanon and Israel, with small communities in Jordan and outside southwestern Asia.
Faith Communities Can Assist Immigrants and
For other uses, see, druse (disambiguation). The, druze ( /druz/ ; 16, arabic : darzī or durzī, plural durūz ; Hebrew : drūzī plural, druzim ) are. Arabic -speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group 17 originating in, western Asia who self-identify as unitarians al-Muwaidūn muwahhidun ). 18, jethro of, midian is considered an ancestor of all people from the. Mountain of Druze region, who revere him as their spiritual founder and chief prophet., the Druze faith is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the teachings of high Islamic figures like hamza ibn-'Ali ibn-Ahmad and Al-hakim bi-Amr Allah, and Greek philosophers such as Plato. 24 25 The Epistles of Wisdom is the foundational text of the Druze faith. 26 The Druze faith incorporates elements of Islam 's Ismailism, 27 Gnosticism, neoplatonism, pythagoreanism, hinduism 28 29 and other philosophies and beliefs, creating a distinct and secretive theology known to interpret esoterically religious scriptures, and to highlight the role of the mind and truthfulness. 18 29 The Druze follow theophany, and believe in reincarnation or the transmigration of the soul. At the end of the cycle of rebirth, which is achieved through successive reincarnations, the soul is united with the cosmic Mind ( al-Aql al-kullī ).thesis