Contemporary more contemporary views along the evolutionary psychology spectrum posit that both basic emotions and social emotions evolved to motivate (social) behaviors that were adaptive in the ancestral environment. 7 Current research citation needed suggests that emotion is an essential part of any human decision-making and planning, and the famous distinction made between reason and emotion is not as clear as it seems. MacLean claims that emotion competes with even more instinctive responses, on one hand, and the more abstract reasoning, on the other hand. The increased potential in neuroimaging has also allowed investigation into evolutionarily ancient parts of the brain. Important neurological advances were derived from these perspectives in the 1990s by joseph. Ledoux and António damásio. Research on social emotion also focuses on the physical displays of emotion including body language of animals and humans (see affect display ).
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In stoic theories it was seen as a hindrance to reason and therefore a hindrance to virtue. Aristotle believed that emotions were an essential component of virtue. 35 In the Aristotelian view all emotions (called passions) corresponded to appetites or capacities. During the middle Ages, the Aristotelian view was adopted and further the developed by scholasticism and Thomas Aquinas 36 in particular. There are also theories of emotions in the works of philosophers such as René descartes, niccolò machiavelli, baruch Spinoza, 37 Thomas Hobbes 38 and david Hume. In the 19th century emotions were considered adaptive and were studied more frequently from an empiricist psychiatric perspective. Evolutionary theories edit main articles: evolution of emotion and evolutionary psychology 19th century perspectives on emotions from evolutionary theory were initiated during the mid-late 19th century with Charles Darwin 's 1872 book the Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. 39 Darwin argued that emotions actually served a purpose for humans, in communication and also in aiding their survival. Darwin, therefore, argued that emotions evolved via natural selection and therefore have universal cross-cultural counterparts. Darwin also detailed the virtues of experiencing emotions and the parallel experiences that occur in animals. This led the way for animal research on emotions and the eventual determination of the neural underpinnings of emotion.
Instead, the emotional episode is assembled at the moment of its occurrence to suit its specific circumstances. One implication is that all cases of, for example, fear are not identical but instead bear a family resemblance to one another. Theories edit see also: Functional accounts of emotion Ancient Greece, ancient China, the Islamic Golden Age, and the middle Ages edit Theories about emotions stretch back to at least as far as the stoics of Ancient Greece and Ancient China. In China, excessive emotion was believed to cause damage to qi, which in turn, damages the vital organs. 33 The four humours theory made popular by hippocrates offer contributed to the study of emotion in the same way that it did for medicine. During the Islamic Golden Age, persian polymath avicenna theorized about the influence of emotions on health and behaviors, suggesting the need to manage emotions. 34 Western philosophy regarded emotion in varying ways.
28 Multi-dimensional analysis edit Two dimensions of Emotion Through the use of multidimensional scaling, psychologists can map out similar emotional experiences, which allows a visual depiction of the "emotional distance" between experiences. 29 A further step can be taken by looking at the map's dimensions of the emotional experiences. The emotional experiences are divided into two dimensions known as valence (how negative or positive the experience feels) and nashville arousal (how energized or enervated the experience feels). These two dimensions can be depicted on a 2D coordinate map. 30 This two-dimensional map was theorized to capture one important component of emotion called core affect. 31 32 Core affect desk is not the only component to emotion, but gives the emotion its hedonic and felt energy. The idea that core affect is but one component of the emotion led to a theory called psychological construction. 17 According to this theory, an emotional episode consists of a set of components, each of which is an ongoing process and none of which is necessary or sufficient for the emotion to be instantiated. The set of components is not fixed, either by human evolutionary history or by social norms and roles.
His research findings led him to classify six emotions as basic: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise. 27 Robert Plutchik agreed with Ekman's biologically driven perspective but developed the " wheel of emotions suggesting eight primary emotions grouped on a positive or negative basis: joy versus sadness; anger versus fear; trust versus disgust; and surprise versus anticipation. 27 Some basic emotions can be modified to form complex emotions. The complex emotions could arise from cultural conditioning or association combined with the basic emotions. Alternatively, similar to the way primary colors combine, primary emotions could blend to form the full spectrum of human emotional experience. For example, interpersonal anger and disgust could blend to form contempt. Relationships exist between basic emotions, resulting in positive or negative influences.
Action tendencies: a motivational component for the preparation and report direction of motor responses. Expression: facial and vocal expression almost always accompanies an emotional state to communicate reaction and intention of actions. Feelings: the subjective experience of emotional state once it has occurred. Classification edit main article: Emotion classification A distinction can be made between emotional episodes and emotional dispositions. Emotional dispositions are also comparable to character traits, where someone may be said to be generally disposed to experience certain emotions. For example, an irritable person is generally disposed to feel irritation more easily or quickly than others.
Finally, some theorists place emotions within a more general category of "affective states" where affective states resume can also include emotion-related phenomena such as pleasure and pain, motivational states (for example, hunger or curiosity moods, dispositions and traits. 26 The classification of emotions has mainly been researched from two fundamental viewpoints. The first viewpoint is that emotions are discrete and fundamentally different constructs while the second viewpoint asserts that emotions can be characterized on a dimensional basis in groupings. Basic emotions edit Examples of basic emotions For more than 40 years, paul Ekman has supported the view that emotions are discrete, measurable, and physiologically distinct. Ekman's most influential work revolved around the finding that certain emotions appeared to be universally recognized, even in cultures that were preliterate and could not have learned associations for facial expressions through media. Another classic study found that when participants contorted their facial muscles into distinct facial expressions (for example, disgust they reported subjective and physiological experiences that matched the distinct facial expressions.
21 Thus fear might range from mild concern to terror or shame might range from simple embarrassment to toxic shame. 22 Emotions have also been described as biologically given and a result of evolution because they provided good solutions to ancient and recurring problems that faced our ancestors. 23 moods are feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that often lack a contextual stimulus. 16 Emotion can be differentiated from a number of similar constructs within the field of affective neuroscience : feelings are best understood as a subjective representation of emotions, private to the individual experiencing them. Moods are diffuse affective states that generally last for much longer durations than emotions and are also usually less intense than emotions.
Affect is an encompassing term, used to describe the topics of emotion, feelings, and moods together, even though it is commonly used interchangeably with emotion. In addition, relationships exist between emotions, such as having positive or negative influences, with direct opposites existing. These concepts are described in contrasting and categorization of emotions. Graham differentiates emotions as functional or dysfunctional and argues all functional emotions have benefits. 24 Components edit In Scherer's components processing model of emotion, 25 five crucial elements of emotion are said to exist. From the component processing perspective, emotion experience is said to require that all of these processes become coordinated and synchronized for a short period of time, driven by appraisal processes. Although the inclusion of cognitive appraisal as one of the elements is slightly controversial, since some theorists make the assumption that emotion and cognition are separate but interacting systems, the component processing model provides a sequence of events that effectively describes the coordination involved during. Cognitive appraisal: provides an evaluation of events and objects. Bodily symptoms: the physiological component of emotional experience.
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13 "no one felt emotions before about 1830. Instead they felt other things - "passions "accidents of the house soul "moral sentiments" - and explained them very differently from how we understand emotions today." 13 According to one dictionary, the earliest precursors of the word likely dates back to the very origins of language. 14 The modern word emotion is heterogeneous 15 In some uses of the word, emotions are intense feelings that are directed at someone or something. 16 On the other hand, emotion can be used to refer to states that are mild (as in annoyed or content) and to states that are not directed at anything (as in anxiety and depression). One line of research thus looks at the meaning of the word emotion in everyday language 15 and this usage is rather different from that in academic discourse. Another line of research asks about languages other than English, and one interesting finding is that many languages have a similar but not identical term 17 18 In anthropology, an inability to express or perceive emotion is sometimes referred to as alexithymia. 19 Emotions have been described by some theorists as discrete and consistent responses to internal or external events which have a particular significance for the organism. Emotions are brief in duration and consist of a coordinated set of responses, which may include verbal, physiological, behavioral, and neural mechanisms. Graham describes all emotions as existing on a continuum of intensity.
Current areas of research in the concept of emotion include the development of materials that stimulate and elicit emotion. In addition pet scans and fmri scans help study the affective processes in the brain. 10 "Emotions can be defined as a positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity." Emotions produce different physiological, behavioral and cognitive changes. The original role of emotions was to motivate adaptive behaviors that in the past would have contributed to the survival of humans. Emotions are responses to significant internal and external events. 11 Contents Etymology, definitions, history and differentiation edit sixteen faces expressing the human passions-coloured engraving. Pass, after 1821, after Charles le brun The word "emotion" dates back to 1579, when it was adapted from the French word émouvoir, which means "to stir up". The term emotion was introduced into academic discussion as a catch-all term to passions, sentiments and affections. 12 The word emotion was coined in the early 1800s by Thomas Brown and it is around the 1830s that the modern concept of emotion first emerged.
The different components of emotion are categorized somewhat differently depending on the academic discipline. In psychology and philosophy, emotion typically includes a subjective, conscious experience characterized primarily by psychophysiological expressions, biological reactions, and mental states. A similar multicomponential description of emotion is found in sociology. For example, peggy Thoits 9 described emotions as involving physiological components, cultural or emotional labels (anger, surprise, etc. expressive body actions, and the appraisal of situations and contexts. Research on emotion has increased significantly over the past two decades with many fields contributing including psychology, neuroscience, endocrinology, medicine, history, sociology, and computer science. The numerous theories that attempt to explain the origin, neurobiology, experience, and function of emotions have only fostered more intense research on this topic.
According with to some theories, they are states of feeling that result in physical and psychological changes that influence our behavior. 5, the physiology of emotion is closely linked to arousal of the nervous system with various states and strengths of arousal relating, apparently, to particular emotions. Emotion is also linked to behavioral tendency. Extroverted people are more likely to be social and express their emotions, while introverted people are more likely to be more socially withdrawn and conceal their emotions. Emotion is often the driving force behind motivation, positive or negative. 7, according to other theories, emotions are not causal forces but simply syndromes of components, which might include motivation, feeling, behavior, and physiological changes, but no one of these components is the emotion. Nor is the emotion an entity that causes these components. 8 Emotions involve different components, such as subjective experience, cognitive processes, expressive behavior, psychophysiological changes, and instrumental behavior.
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For other uses, see, emotion (disambiguation). For other uses, see, emotional (disambiguation). Emotion is any conscious experience 1 2 3 characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure. 4 5, scientific discourse has drifted to other meanings and there is no consensus on a definition. Emotion is often intertwined with mood, temperament, personality, disposition, and motivation. 6, in some theories, cognition is an important aspect of emotion. Those acting primarily on the emotions they are feeling may seem as if they are not thinking, but mental processes are still essential, particularly in the interpretation of events. For example, the realization of our believing that we are in a dangerous situation and the subsequent arousal of our body's nervous system (rapid heartbeat and breathing, sweating, muscle tension) is integral to the experience of our feeling afraid. Other theories, however, claim that emotion is separate from and can precede cognition.