The relationship developed in the bew seems robust enough to transfer to the hrp, resulting in 78 of plots correctly categorized in terms of growth rate. Maximum growth rates after disturbance are concentrated in intermediate soil moistures, but at the higher solar radiation levels. It is possible that solar radiation levels higher that those simulated for this study would result in lower growth levels, but these results to do not support the assumption that net energy profits, as reflected by growth rate, will be maximized at the center. Chapter 5: Canopy restructuring in Response to hurricane Disturbance - i described canopy structure using the foliage profile technique, and combined sampling layers into five: 1) herb (0-1 m 2) shrub (1-4 m subcanopy (4-12 m canopy (12- 20 m and surviving (20-30 m). I evaluated the role of two secondary gradients in influencing the dynamics of canopy restructuring: 1) community dynamics (driven by gradients of hurricane damage) and 2) topographic position. I tested two specific hypotheses: Hypothesis 2 - recovering forest stands have significantly different canopy structures when dominated by recruitment (early successional species) as opposed to dominated by regrowth (surviving late successional species).
Dissertation summary, ricky martin
Although more large patches are created, the majority of patches are small (0.0025 ha) and writers isolated. At scales of tens of meters, the pattern of damage is controlled principally by biotic factors, specifically the distribution of species that respond differently to hurricane winds, therefore the hypothesis is rejected. A trend appears to exist with increasing importance of abiotic factors (topography and storm intensity) at large spatial scales, shifting to control by biotic factors at finer spatial scales. Chapter 3: Hurricane damage Gradients and Vegetation Community dynamics - the use of a two-dimensional gradient space of structural damage and compositional damage is effective in differentiating sites whose recovery is dominated by recruitment of early successional species as opposed to those sites whose recovery. These two appear to be the principal vectors of recovery of the lef following Hurricane Hugo: regrowth and recruitment. This predictive model is effective on the largest scales, tens of hectares, in this study, and down to the scale of 20 m plots, but fails agent if the plot data is taken from a finer resolution (5 m). At this fine a spatial scale, plots can be impacted by damage that occurred outside the plot. The failure of the two-dimensional damage gradient space is most often related to plots that recover through recruitment, but are classified as undamaged. Chapter 4: biomass Production in Response to post- Hurricane Environmental Gradients - i assessed the predictive power of the primary gradients of soil moisture and solar radiation and the secondary gradient of hurricane damage, in determining rate of biomass accumulation. I examine the question: are energy profits maximized at the center of gradients of abiotic environmental factors? My results show a distinct sensitivity of post-disturbance growth to gradients of solar radiation and soil water.
Are there consistent differences between tropical and temperate forests in terms of wind disturbance and response? There is a latitudinal gradient of increasing frequency and intensity of catastrophic wind toward the tropics and corresponding differences in the rate and path to recovery. Regions that are more frequently impacted by these storms exhibit lower levels of mortality, although structure damage may be high, and recover at a faster rate relative to temperate regions. Chapter 2: Factors Influencing the Spatial Pattern of Hurricane damage - i examined three aspects of the spatial pattern of hurricane disturbance: 1) how do the spatial patterns vary with different measures degenerative of hurricane damage, 2) what is the gap size of hurricane disturbance, and. Relative to the last issue, i tested this hypothesis: Hypothesis 1 - hurricane damage is more highly correlated to abiotic environmental factors than to biotic factors. Different measures of hurricane damage lead to different perceptions of patterns of damage over the landscape. The more general measures of damage, such as basal area lost or canopy damage, tend to minimize the species-specific differences and result in more complex patterns of damage with increasing proportions of larger patches in the scales examined in this study (tens to hundreds. Hurricane damage results in distinct patches of damage. Again, with more general measures of damage, more larger patches (.04 ha) are identifiable, and a greater proportion of the total damaged area is in large patches.
Ridges are more exposed to acute wind conditions, but may be pre-conditioned by chronic wind and therefore experience less damage. The relationship between soil and wind damage relates to root growth, which may be restricted by: shallow soils, high water table, a shallow impermeable soil layer, or soil texture. Previous disturbances may influence subsequent wind damage by: a) increasing turbulence by opening the canopy, b) selectively removing susceptible trees, and c) shifting the vegetation composition toward more wind resistant species. Can any generalizations be drawn regarding the dynamics of recovery from catastrophic winds? Four distinct paths of response are identifiable: regrowth, recruitment, release, and repression. But the influence of disturbance severity and environmental gradients on these paths is little understood. I propose that the dual damage parameter of structural and compositional damage holds promise toward predicting the principal path of response to wind disturbance.
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How do biotic factors (e.g. Stem size, species, stand conditions, and pathogens may all influence the severity of damage during a windstorm. I hypothesize that the relationship between stem size and damage is unimodal and that studies indicating other patterns are limited in sample size or by the categories of stem size used in the analysis. The differential effects of wind on different species are thoroughly documented. In addition, some successional class trends exist. Pioneer species, such as Cecropia schreberiana in this study, appear to be more susceptible to damage and more likely to die.
How do abiotic factors (e.g. Topography, disturbance history, and soil ftm conditions all influence severity of damage. The role of topography in channeling wind is complex. Valleys are not always protected sites, even little when their aspects do not align with the storm winds. Of particular interest is the influence of lee slopes, which may provide protection, and may be sites of turbulent airflow and therefore increased damage.
7) Are there consistent differences between tropical and temperate forests in terms of wind disturbance and response? How should catastrophic wind intensity be quantified? I suggest that all studies of catastrophic wind impacts include these five measurements: 1) maximum sustained wind, 2) maximum gusts, 3) storm duration, 4) rainfall total and percent of average annual rainfall, and 5) distance between the study site and the site of measurement. How should catastrophic wind effects be quantified? Different measures of hurricane damage result in different conclusions about severity of disturbance.
To facilitate comparisons between sites I suggest a dual measure of severity: 1) structural loss - percent basal area lost or percent stems lost, and 2) compositional loss - percent mortality. Regardless of individual research questions, catastrophic wind researchers should report totals for their sites that include structural loss and compositional loss. Is catastrophic wind damage homogeneous, or are there spatial patterns of damage, and can these patterns be predicted? Catastrophic wind damage does not affect the landscape uniformly. Increasing intensity of wind results in a gap size distribution skewed increasingly to larger gaps, but the full range of gap sizes from small to large is still created. With increasing damage, the landscape changes from a forest with gaps to one with isolated stands of intact forest.
Dissertation summary in english - pdf
2) How should catastrophic wind effects be teresa quantified? 3) Is catastrophic wind damage homogeneous, or are there spatial patterns of damage, and can these patterns be predicted? 4) How do biotic factors front (e.g. Tree size, species, and stand differences) influence damage? 5) How do abiotic factors (e.g. Topography, soil, and previous disturbance) influence damage? 6) Can any generalizations be drawn regarding the dynamics of recovery from catastrophic winds?
I collected data on the vegetation during the first five years of recovery in an effort to understand the factors that influence the spatial pattern of damage and the factors that control the path to and rate of recovery, as quantified by changes in: community. My conclusions regarding hurricane disturbance and recovery are incorporated into a computer simulation model, recover. These efforts are based on a direct gradient approach to understanding the impacts of disturbance. I use simulated levels of abiotic factors, measured intensities of hurricane damage, and topographic position to describe the positions in gradient space following disturbance and test the predictive ability of this gradient approach in determining the dynamics of recovery. There are five specific goals to this project: 1) to describe the spatial patterns of hurricane damage and the factors that influence these patterns, 2) to predict the vegetation community response to gradients thesis of hurricane damage, 3) to assess the role of gradients of solar. These goals are examined in chapters two through six, respectively. Chapter 1: Catastrophic Wind Damage to forests - i began with a review of the literature relating to catastrophic wind impacts on forests. With this review i attempted to answer seven questions: 1) How should catastrophic wind intensity be quantified?
I'll walk to the depths of the deepest dark forests, and reflect from the mountains so all souls can see. It's a hard rain gonna' fall. The answer my friend, is blowin' in the wind Robert Zimmerman. Summary of results, this project was intended to examine the vegetation dynamics associated with hurricane disturbance and recovery in a wet tropical forest, the lef.
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