Essay on brain drain in english

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essay on brain drain in english

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The documentation for the construction of Olavinlinna is unusually clear: it was founded precisely in 1475 by a danish-born knight, Erik axelsson Tott who worked in the service of the Swedish crown and was also governor of Vyborg castle; the castle's strategic significance, along with. According to Axelsson's own account, the castle was built by "16 good foreign master masons" - some of them from Tallinn. The castle is built on an island in the kyrönsalmi strait that connects the lakes haukivesi and Pihlajavesi ; the design was based on the idea of 3 large towers in a line facing north-west and an encircling wall. The castle's present good state of repair is due to a thorough restoration carried out in the 1960s and 70s. Häme castle, the oldest parts built in stone, said to originate in the 1260s, was originally built in wood, then rebuilt in stone, but then transformed radically in the 14th century in red brick, unique for Finland, with extra lines of defence also in brick. In the 19th century it was converted into a prison in accordance with a design by architect Carl Ludvig Engel.

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View of Turku cathedral before the Great Fire of 1827. The development of stone construction edit The use of stone construction in Finland was initially limited to the few medieval castles and churches in the country. The construction of castles was part of a project by the Swedish crown to construct both defensive and administrative centres throughout Finland. Six castles of national importance were built during the medieval period, from the second half of the 13th century onwards: Kastelholm on the Åland Islands, turku, and Raseborg on the south-west coast, vyborg on an islet off the south-east coast and Häme and Olavinlinna further. 18 The northern-most castle, and situated even further inland, kajaani, dates from the beginning of the 17th century. Kuusisto, on an island of the same name, and Korsholma on the coast also dates from this later period. The earlier parts of the castle constructions are characterised by heavy granite boulder constructions, but with ever more refined details in later periods. Strategically, the two most important castle were that of Turku and Vyborg. The three high-medieval Finnish "castle fiefs" were ruled until the 1360s from the castles of Turku, hämeenlinna and Vyborg. By the beginning of the 14th century, turku castle was one of the largest in northern Europe, with over superstition 40 rooms and by the mid-16th century received further changes to withstand cannon fire. Construction of Vyborg castle started in 1293 by order of Torkel Knutsson, lord High Constable of Sweden.

Over the following years, there more fires (significantly in 18) and yet more exacting regulations in new town plans regarding wider streets and fire breaks. Of Finland's 6 medieval towns, only porvoo has summary retained its medieval town plan. Tornio block-pillar church, 1686. Sodankylä Old Church, lapland,.1689. Petäjävesi Old Church interior. Elisabet Church, hamina, "double cross plan 174851, destroyed 1821. Lappee church, "double cross plan 1799. Cathedral and wooden houses of Old Porvoo.

essay on brain drain in english

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Historian Lars Pettersson has suggested that the katarina Church (1724) in Stockholm, by the French-born architect jean de la vallée was the model for the plan of Hamina church and hence the development that followed. During the middle Ages there were only 6 towns in Finland ( Turku, porvoo, naantali, rauma, ulvila and Vyborg with wooden buildings growing organically around a stone church and/or castle. Historian Henrik lilius has pointed out that Finnish wooden towns were on average destroyed by fire every 3040 years. 17 They were never rebuilt exactly as they had existed before, and the fire damage offered the opportunity to create new urban structures in accordance with any reigning ideals: for example, completely new grid plans, straightening and widening streets, codes for constructing buildings in stone. As a consequence of fires, the greatest part of the wooden towns which have been preserved date from the nineteenth century. For example, the town of Oulu was founded in 1605 by Charles ix beside a medieval castle and, typical for its time, grew organically. In 1651 Claes Claesson drew up a new plan comprising a regular street grid, his proposal outlined on top of the existing "medieval" situation, but still retaining the position of the existing church.

The "Lapp church" of Sodankylä (c. 1689 finland's best-preserved and least changed wooden church, is a simple, unpainted rectangular saddle-back-roofed block, measuring 13 x 8,5 metres with the walls rising to 3,85 metres, and resembling a peasant dwelling. By contrast, petäjävesi church (planned and built by master builder jaakko klemetinpoika leppänen, 1765) plus the additional sacristy and belfry (Erkki leppänen, 1821) (a world Heritage site though also unpainted on the exterior, has a refined cross plan with even-sized arms, 18 x 18 metres. The atmosphere of the interior of Petäjävesi church is regarded as unique; the large windows, unusual for log construction, give it a soft light. Even at the time of the building of Petäjävesi church, with its "cross plan more complex ground plans had already existed in Finland, but in later years the ground plans would become even more complex. The first so-called "double cross plan" in Finland was probably the Ulrika eleonora church in Hamina (1731, burnt down 1742 built under the direction of master builder Henrik schultz. It was then replaced by a somewhat similar church, the Church of Elisabet in Hamina (174851, destroyed 1821 built under the direction of Arvi junkkarinen. The double cruciform plan entailed a cross with extensions at the inner corners. This became a model for later churches, for example, mikkeli church (1754, destroyed 1806) and Lappee church (Juhana salonen, 1794 the latter incorporating yet a further development, where the transepts of the cross plan are tapered and even chamfered at the corners, as one sees.

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essay on brain drain in english

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Western Finland, influenced by Swedish traditions. For example, in the Antti farmstead, originally from the village of säkylä (nowadays also in seurasaari the farmstead consisted of a group of individual log buildings placed around a central farmyard. Traditionally, the first building to be constructed in such a farmstead was the sauna, followed by the first or main room tupa of the main house, where the family would cook, eat and sleep. In summertime they would cook outdoors, and some family members would even choose to sleep in the barns. 16 The development of wood construction to a more refined level occurred, however, in the construction of churches. The earliest examples were not designed by architects but rather by master builders, who also were responsible for their construction.

One of the oldest known wooden church is that of Santamala, in nousiainen (only archaeological remains existing dating from the 12th century, with a simple rectangular ground plan of 11,5 x 15 metres. The oldest preserved wooden churches in Finland date back to the 17th century (e.g. Sodankylä old church, lapland, 1689 none of the medieval churches are remaining as, like all wooden buildings, they were susceptible to fire. Indeed, only 16 wooden churches from the 17th century still exist - though it was not uncommon to demolish a wooden church to make way for a larger stone one. 7 The designs of the wooden churches were clearly mall influenced by the church architecture from central and southern Europe as well as Russia, with cruciform plans and Gothic, romanesque and Renaissance features and detailing. These influences most often, however, came via sweden. The development of the wooden church in Finland is marked by greater complexity in the plan, the increased size and the refinement of details.

In later developments, most particularly in urban contexts, the log frame was then further covered in a layer of wooden planks. It is hypothesised that it was only from the 16th century onwards that wooden houses were painted in the familiar red-ochre or punamulta, containing up to 95 iron oxide, often mixed with tar. 13 The balloon framing technique for timber construction popularized throughout North America only came to finland in the 20th century. Finnish master builders had travelled to the usa to see how the industrialisation of the timber-framing technique had developed and wrote about it positively in trade journals on their return. Some experiments were made in using the wooden frame, but initially it was not popular. 14 One reason was the thin construction's poor climatic performance (improved in the 1930s with the addition of insulation also significant was the relatively low price of both timber and labour in Finland.


However, by the outbreak of the first World War, the industrialsed timber construction system had become more widespread. Also a comparatively recent "import" to finland is the use of wooden shingles for roofs, dating only from the early 19th century. Previous to that, the traditional system had been a so-called birch-bark roof (in Finnish, malkakatto comprising a wooden slat base, overlaid with several layers of birch-bark and finished off with a layer of long timber poles by weighed down in places by the occasional boulder. Traditionally, the whole structure was unpainted. 15 The coating of shingles with tar was the modern appropriation of a material first produced in the nordic countries during the Iron Age, a major export product, especially in sealing wooden boats. The traditional timber house in Finland was generally of two types:. Eastern Finland, influenced by russian traditions. For example, in the pertinotsa house (now in the seurasaari Open Air Museum in Helsinki) the family's dwelling rooms are on the upper floors while the animal barns and storerooms are on the ground floor, with hay lofts above them;.

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Its first use in Finland may have been as a mother storehouse, and later a sauna and then domestic house. The first examples of the "corner-timbering" technique would have used round logs, but a more developed form soon emerged, shaping logs with an axe to a square shape for a surer fit and better insulation. Hewing with an axe was seen as preferable to sawing because the axe-cut surfaces were better in abating water penetration. According to historians, though the principles of wooden construction may have arrived in Finland from elsewhere, one particular innovation in wooden construction seems to be unique to finland, the so-called block-pillar church (tukipilarikirkko). Though ostensibly looking like a normal wooden church, the novelty involved the construction of hollow pillars from logs built into the exterior walls, making the walls themselves structurally unnecessary. The pillars are tied internally across the nave by large joists. Usually there were two, but occasionally three pillars on each longitudinal wall. The largest preserved block-pillar church is at Tornio (1686). Other examples are the churches of vöyri (1627) and Tervola (1687).

essay on brain drain in english

The building type remained in use throughout Finland until the 19th century, and is still in use among the sami people in Lapland. The sauna is also a traditional building type in Finland: the oldest known saunas in Finland were made from pits dug into a slope in the ground and primarily used as dwellings in the wintertime. The first Finnish saunas are what nowadays are called "smoke saunas". These differed from modern saunas in that they had no windows and were heated by heating up a pile of rocks (called kiuas ) by burning large amounts of wood for about 68 hours, and then write letting the smoke out through a hatch before entering. 9 The tradition of wood construction - beyond the kota hut - has been common throughout the entire northern boreal coniferous zone since prehistoric times. The central structural factor in its success was the corner joining - or "corner-timbering" - technique, whereby logs are laid horizontally in succession and notched at the ends to form tightly secure joints. The origins of the technique are uncertain; though it was used by the romans in northern Europe in the first century bc, other possible older sources are said to be areas of present-day russia, but also it is said to have been common among the. 11 Crucial in the development of the "corner-timbering" technique were the necessary tools, primarily an axe rather than a saw. 12 The resulting building type, a rectangular plan, originally comprising a single interior space and with a low-pitched saddle-back roof, is of the same origin as the megaron, the early Greek dwelling house.

history of architecture in Finland, along with the founding of towns and the building of castles and fortresses (in the numerous wars between Sweden and Russia fought in Finland as well as the availability. As an essentially forested region, timber has been the natural building material, while the hardness of the local stone (predominantly granite) initially made it difficult to work, and the manufacture of brick was rare before the mid-19th century. 7, the use of concrete took on a particular prominence with the rise of the welfare state in the 1960s, in particular in state-sanctioned housing with the dominance of prefabricated concrete elements. 8, sami kota or goahti in the 1870s "In the sauna painting by akseli gallen-Kallela, 1889. Claes Claesson's town plan for Oulu, 1651. Contents, from early architecture to 1809 (including the Swedish colonial period) edit The dominance of wood construction edit The vernacular architecture of Finland is generally characterised by the predominant use of wooden construction. The oldest known dwelling structure is the so-called kota, a goahti, hut or tent with a covering in fabric, peat, moss, or timber.

But even more renowned than saarinen has been modernist architect. Alvar Aalto, who is regarded as one of the major figures in the world history of modern architecture. 2, in an article from 1922 titled Motifs from past ages, aalto discussed national and international influences in Finland, and as he saw it; "seeing how report people in the past were able to be international and unprejudiced and yet remain true to themselves, we may. Our Finnish forefathers are still our masters." 3, in a 2000 review article of twentieth century finnish architecture, frédéric Edelmann, arts critic of the French newspaper. Le monde, suggested that Finland has more great architects of the status of Alvar Aalto in proportion to the population than any other country in the world. 4, finland's most significant architectural achievements are related to modern architecture, mostly because the current building stock has less than 20 that dates back to before 1955, which relates significantly to the reconstruction following. World War ii and the process of urbanisation which only gathered pace after the war. 5 1249 is the date normally given for the beginning of Swedish rule over the land now known as Finland (in Finnish, suomi and this rule continued until 1809, after which it was ceded to russia.

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"Architecture of Helsinki" redirects here. For the australian band, see. Vyborg Library (1927-35 Alvar Aalto. The architecture of, finland has a history spanning over 800 years, 1 and while up until the modern era the architecture was strongly influenced by currents from Finland's two respective neighbouring ruling nations, Sweden and Russia, from the early 19th century onwards influences came directly. Also, finnish architecture in turn has contributed significantly to several styles internationally, such as Jugendstil (or. Art nouveau nordic Classicism and, functionalism. In particular, the works thesis of the country's most noted early modernist architect. Eliel saarinen have had significant worldwide influence.


essay on brain drain in english
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  4. Essay on Brain Drain Complete Essay for. Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes. Human capital flight refers to the emigration of individuals who have received advanced training at home. The net benefits of human capital flight for the sending country are sometimes referred to as a brain gain whereas the net costs are sometimes referred to as a brain drain.

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