80 The British Invasion also played a major part in the rise of a distinct genre of rock music, and cemented the primacy of the rock group, based on guitars and drums and producing their own material as singer-songwriters. 33 Garage rock edit main article: Garage rock garage rock was a raw form of rock music, particularly prevalent in North America in the mid-1960s and so called because of the perception that it was rehearsed in the suburban family garage. 81 82 Garage rock songs often revolved around the traumas of high school life, with songs about "lying girls" being particularly common. 83 The lyrics and delivery tended to be more aggressive than was common at the time, often with growled or shouted vocals that dissolved into incoherent screaming. 81 They ranged from crude one-chord music (like the seeds ) to near-studio musician quality (including the Knickerbockers, the remains, and the fifth Estate ). There were also regional variations in many parts of the country with flourishing scenes particularly in California and Texas. 83 The pacific Northwest states of Washington and Oregon had perhaps according to whom?
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68 by 1963, led by the letter beatles, beat groups had begun to achieve national success in Britain, soon to be followed into the charts by the more rhythm and blues focused acts. 69 " i want to hold your Hand " was the beatles' first number 1 hit on the billboard Hot 100, spending 7 weeks at the top and a total of 15 weeks on the chart. 71 72 Their first appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show on 9 February 1964, drawing an estimated 73 million viewers (at the time a record for an American television program) is often considered a milestone in American pop culture. During the week of, the beatles held twelve positions on the billboard Hot 100 singles chart, including the entire top five. The beatles went on to become the biggest selling rock band of all time and they were followed into the us charts by numerous British bands. 68 During the next two years British acts dominated their own and the us charts with Peter and Gordon, the Animals, manfred Mann, petula Clark, freddie and the Dreamers, wayne fontana and the mindbenders, herman's Hermits, the rolling Stones, the Troggs, and Donovan all having. 71 Other major acts that were part of the invasion included the kinks and the dave clark five. 76 77 The British Invasion helped internationalize the production of rock and roll, opening the door for subsequent British (and Irish) performers to achieve international success. 78 In America it arguably spelled the end of instrumental surf music, vocal girl groups and (for a time) the teen idols, that had dominated the American charts in the late 1950s and 1960s. 79 It dented the careers of established r b acts like fats Domino and Chubby Checker and even temporarily derailed the chart success of surviving rock and roll acts, including Elvis.
Citation needed Their first chart hit, " Surfin' " in 1962 reached the billboard top 100 and helped make the surf music craze a national phenomenon. 64 The surf music craze and the careers of almost all surf acts was effectively ended by the arrival of the British Invasion from 1964. Citation needed nb 4 British Invasion edit main article: British Invasion see also: thesis beat music, british blues, and British rock by the end of 1962, what would become the British rock scene had started with beat groups like the beatles, gerry the pacemakers and the. They drew on a wide range of American influences including soul, rhythm and blues and surf music, 65 initially reinterpreting standard American tunes and playing for dancers. Bands like the Animals from Newcastle and Them from Belfast, 66 and particularly those from London like the rolling Stones and the yardbirds, were much more directly influenced by rhythm and blues and later blues music. 67 soon these groups were composing their own material, combining us forms of music and infusing it with a high energy beat. Beat bands tended towards "bouncy, irresistible melodies while early British blues acts tended towards less sexually innocent, more aggressive songs, often adopting an anti-establishment stance. There was, however, particularly in the early stages, considerable musical crossover between the two tendencies.
58 Also significant was the resume advent of soul music as a major commercial force. Developing out of rhythm and blues with a re-injection of gospel music and pop, led by pioneers like ray charles and Sam cooke from the mid-1950s, by the early 1960s figures like marvin gaye, james Brown, aretha Franklin, curtis mayfield and Stevie wonder were dominating. 60 nb 3 Some historians of music weasel words have also pointed to important and innovative technical developments that built on rock and roll in this period, including the electronic treatment of sound by such innovators as joe meek, and the elaborate production methods of the. 53 Surf music edit main article: Surf music The instrumental rock and roll of performers such as duane Eddy, link Wray and the ventures was developed by dick dale, who added distinctive "wet" reverb, rapid alternate picking, and Middle eastern and Mexican influences. He produced the regional hit " Let's go trippin' " in 1961 and launched the surf music craze, following up with songs like " Misirlou " (1962). 62 like dale and his Del-Tones, most early surf bands were formed in southern California, including the bel-Airs, the Challengers, and Eddie the Showmen. 62 The Chantays scored a top ten national hit with " Pipeline " in 1963 and probably the best known surf tune was 1963's " Wipe out by the surfaris, which hit number 2 and number 10 on the billboard charts in 1965. 63 Surf music achieved its greatest commercial success as vocal music, particularly the work of the beach boys, formed in 1961 in southern California. Their early albums included both instrumental surf rock (among them covers of music by dick dale) and vocal songs, drawing on rock and roll and doo wop and the close harmonies of vocal pop acts like the four Freshmen.
Nb 1 The period of the later 1950s and early 1960s has traditionally been seen as an era of hiatus for rock and roll. More recently some authors weasel words have emphasised important innovations and trends in this period without which future developments would not have been possible. 52 53 While early rock and roll, particularly through the advent of rockabilly, saw the greatest commercial success for male and white performers, in this era the genre was dominated by black and female artists. Rock and roll had not disappeared at the end of the 1950s and some of its energy can be seen in the Twist dance craze of the early 1960s, mainly benefiting the career of Chubby Checker. 53 nb 2 Cliff Richard had the first British rock and roll hit with " move it effectively ushering in the sound of British rock. 56 At the start of the 1960s, his backing group the Shadows was the most successful group recording instrumentals. 57 While rock 'n' roll was fading into lightweight pop and ballads, British rock groups at clubs and local dances, heavily influenced by blues-rock pioneers like alexis Korner, were starting to play with an intensity and drive seldom found in white American acts.
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36 The era also saw the resume growth in popularity of the electric guitar, and the development of a specifically rock and roll style of playing through such exponents as Chuck berry, link Wray, and Scotty moore. 37 The use of distortion, pioneered by electric blues guitarists such as guitar Slim, 38 Willie johnson and Pat Hare in the early 1950s, 39 was popularized by Chuck berry in the mid-1950s. 40 The use of power chords, pioneered by willie johnson and Pat Hare in the early 1950s, 39 was popularized by link Wray in the late 1950s. 41 In the United Kingdom, the trad jazz and folk movements brought visiting blues music artists to Britain. 42 Lonnie donegan 's 1955 hit " Rock Island Line " was a major influence and helped to develop the trend of skiffle music groups throughout the country, many of which, including John Lennon 's quarrymen, moved on to play rock and roll.
43 Commentators have traditionally perceived a decline of rock and roll in the late 1950s and early 1960s. By 1959, the death of Buddy holly, the big Bopper and Ritchie valens in a plane crash, the departure of Elvis for the army, the retirement of Little richard to become a preacher, prosecutions of Jerry lee lewis and Chuck berry and the breaking. S edit pop rock and instrumental rock edit main articles: Pop rock and Instrumental rock see also: doo wop, british rock and roll, and soul music The term pop has been used since the early 20th century to refer to popular music in general, but. 45 46 From about 1967, it was increasingly used in opposition to the term rock music, to describe a form that was more commercial, ephemeral and accessible. 21 In contrast rock music was seen as focusing on extended works, particularly albums, was often associated with particular sub-cultures (like the counterculture of the 1960s placed an emphasis on artistic values and "authenticity stressed live performance and instrumental or vocal virtuosity and was often. Nevertheless, much pop and rock music has been very similar in sound, instrumentation and even lyrical content.
21 According to simon Frith, rock was something more than pop, something more than rock and roll and rock musicians combined an emphasis on skill and technique with the romantic concept of art as artistic expression, original and sincere". 21 In the new millennium, the term rock has occasionally been used as a blanket term including forms like pop music, reggae music, soul music, and even hip hop, which it has been influenced with but often contrasted through much of its history. 22 1950s: Rock and roll edit main article: Rock and roll see also: Origins of rock and roll and Rockabilly The foundations of rock music are in rock and roll, which originated in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s, and quickly. Its immediate origins lay in a melding of various black musical genres of the time, including rhythm and blues and gospel music, with country and western. 23 In 1951, Cleveland, Ohio disc jockey alan Freed began playing rhythm and blues music (then termed " race music for a multi-racial audience, and is credited with first using the phrase "rock and roll" to describe the music.
24 Debate surrounds which record should be considered the first rock and roll record. Contenders include goree carter 's " Rock Awhile " (1949 25 Jimmy Preston 's " Rock the joint " (1949 which was later covered by bill Haley his Comets in 1952; 26 and " Rocket 88 " by jackie brenston and his Delta cats (in. 27 four years later, bill Haley 's " Rock Around the Clock " (1955) became the first rock and roll song to top Billboard magazine's main sales and airplay charts, and opened the door worldwide for this new wave of popular culture. 29 It has also been argued that " That's All Right (Mama) " (1954 Elvis Presley 's first single for Sun Records in Memphis, could be the first rock and roll record, 30 but, at the same time, big joe turner 's " Shake, rattle. Other artists with early rock and roll hits included Chuck berry, bo diddley, fats Domino, little richard, jerry lee lewis, and Gene vincent. 27 soon rock and roll was the major force in American record sales and crooners, such as Eddie fisher, perry como, and Patti page, who had dominated the previous decade of popular music, found their access to the pop charts significantly curtailed. 31 Rock and roll has been seen as leading to a number of distinct subgenres, including rockabilly, combining rock and roll with "hillbilly" country music, which was usually played and recorded in the mid-1950s by white singers such as Carl Perkins, jerry lee lewis, buddy. 32 In contrast doo wop placed an emphasis on multi-part vocal harmonies and meaningless backing lyrics (from which the genre later gained its name which were usually supported with light instrumentation and had its origins in 1930s and 1940s African American vocal groups. 33 Acts like the Crows, the penguins, the El Dorados and the turbans all scored major hits, and groups like the Platters, with songs including " The Great Pretender " (1955 and the coasters with humorous songs like " yakety yak " (1958 ranked among.
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12 Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock. 13 Because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." 14 A simple 4/4 drum pattern common in rock music. 10 These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the tin Pan Alley surgery pop tradition, folk music, and rhythm and blues. 15 Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, and asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more generally, noise." 16 The predominance of white, male, and often middle class musicians in rock music. 18 As a result, it has also been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. 19 Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll usually implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". 20 Since the term rock started being used in preference to rock and roll from the late-1960s, it has usually been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from which it is often distanced by an emphasis on musicianship, live.
5 A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock band or a rock group. Furthermore, it typically consists of between three (the power trio ) and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist, drummer, and often keyboard player or other instrumentalist. 9 Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four. 10 Melodies often originate from older musical modes such as the dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common this triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. 10 Since the late 1950s 11 and particularly from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music often used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model.
adult consumerism and conformity. Contents Characteristics edit a good definition of rock, in fact, is that it's popular music that to a certain degree doesn't care if it's popular. — m 3 Red Hot Chili peppers in 2006, showing a quartet lineup for a rock band (from left to right: bassist, lead vocalist, drummer, and guitarist). The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. 4 Also, it was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists. 5 The sound of an electric guitar in rock music is typically supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era. 6, and percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. 7 This trio of instruments has often been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments, particularly keyboards such as the piano, the hammond organ, and the synthesizer. 8 The basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation (prominent lead guitar, second chordal instrument, bass, and drums).
Like pop music, lyrics often stress romantic love but also address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" 1 period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, raga rock, and jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, which was influenced by the. New genres that emerged included progressive rock, which extended the artistic elements; glam rock, which highlighted showmanship and visual style; and the diverse and enduring subgenre of heavy metal, which emphasized volume, power, and speed. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and eventually alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge, britpop, and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, and rap metal, as well as conscious report attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock / post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has also embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the uk and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the us in the 1960s. Similarly, 1970s punk culture spawned the goth, punk, and emo subcultures.
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For the original 1950s style of rock music, see. For other uses, see, rock music (disambiguation). Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as " rock and roll " in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and. 1 2, it has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew heavily slogan on the African-American genres of blues and rhythm and blues, and from country music. Rock music also drew strongly on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, and incorporated influences from jazz, classical and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar, usually as part of a rock group with electric bass, drums, and one or more singers. Typically, rock is song -based music usually with a 4/4 time signature using a versechorus form, but the genre has become extremely diverse.