2, in 1991, jacques Barzun wrote: I discovered its illusory character when many years ago a japanese friend with whom i often discussed literature told me that to him and some of his English-speaking friends the most beautiful word in our language was 'cellardoor'. It was not beautiful to me and I wondered where its evocative power lay for the japanese. Was it because they find l and r difficult to pronounce, and the word thus acquires remoteness and enchantment? I asked, and learned also that Tatsuo sakuma, my friend, had never seen an American cellar door, either inside a house or outside — the usual two flaps on a sloping ledge. No doubt that lack of visual familiarity added to the words appeal. He also enjoyed going to restaurants and hearing the waiter ask if he would like salad or roast vegetables, because again the phrase 'salad or' could be heard. I concluded that its charmlessness to speakers of English lay simply in its meaning.
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1 2, the original instance of this observation has not been discovered, although it was made as early as 1903. Contents, meaning and aesthetic qualities edit, in the United States, houses are often built with a door or pair of shutters between the outside of a building and its cellar. In Britain, Ireland and Canada, a cellar door is often located within a house and opens onto a flight of stairs leading to the cellar. Outside doors are more common to pubs and restaurants. Citation needed, from the nineteenth century, many American houses on large plots had week slanted trapdoors abutting the side and opening onto a flight of steps leading down into the cellar. By the mid-twentieth century this rustic feature was a rarity; in 1953, william Chapman White wrote in the, new York essay herald Tribune : The modern small home or apartment has. Deprived today's child. The pleasant summer afternoon activity of sliding down cellar doors. Just what happened to the slanted cellar door in this efficient age isn't clear; although cellars have remained, nothing has disappeared more quietly from modern life than these cellar doors. Linguist, geoffrey nunberg suggests the use of such a semantically banal term to illustrate the idea of beauty appeals to aesthetes as "an occasion to display a capacity to discern beauty in the names of prosaic things".
National Portrait Gallery literature (United Kingdom). Retrieved on References edit Adams, simon: leicester and the court: Essays in Elizabethan Politics Manchester. Elliott and lwb brockliss, eds, The world of the favourite,1999, yale up, isbn. For other uses, see, cellar door (disambiguation). In phonaesthetics, the, english compound noun cellar door has been cited as an example of a word or phrase which is beautiful purely in terms of its sound ( euphony without regard for semantics (i.e., meaning). It has been variously presented either as merely one beautiful instance of many, or as the most beautiful in the. English language ; as the author's personal choice, that of an eminent scholar's, or of a foreigner who does not speak the language.
George villiers, 1st duke of Buckingham, very influential politically and assassinated in 1628, was favourite to both James i and his son Charles i of England. James, who had been effectively orphaned as a baby, and was possibly homosexual, citation needed was very prone to dependency on favourites, although whether sexual activity took place remains unclear. Esmé Stewart, 1st duke of Lennox, 37 to james' 13 when they met, was forced into exile by opponents, and eventually succeeded by robert Carr, 1st Earl of Somerset ; despite titles and wealth, both ended unhappily. Axel Oxenstierna ran the government of Sweden, very successfully, for over 40 years until his death in 1654, when his son took over Henri coiffier de ruzé, marquis of Cinq-Mars in France, executed in 1642 after leading a conspiracy against his rival and patron Cardinal. Madame de pompadour, mistress of louis xv of France madame du barry, later lover of louis xv of France, guillotined during the French revolution see also edit elliott:5, summarising the work of French historian jean Bérenger much Ado about Nothing.1.9 s:Edward the second Elliott:6. 1718 Elliott:1 Elliott:2-3 Blair Worden in Elliott:171 published 1597, perhaps the earliest use of the word in English, it is missed by the oed, who give the Shakespeare use"d above, perhaps written in 1598. Essay in full Essay on "The earl of Chatham"d Elliott:1 portraits of Sarah Churchill.
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8 Francis Bacon, almost a shredders favourite himself, devoted much of his essay on Friendship to the subject, writing as a rising politician under Elizabeth I: It is a strange thing to observe, how high a rate great kings and monarchs do set upon this fruit. For princes, in regard of the distance of their fortune from that of their subjects and servants, cannot gather this fruit, except (to make themselves capable thereof) they raise some persons to be, as it were, companions and almost equals to themselves, which many times. The modern languages give unto such persons the name of favorites, or privadoes. And we see plainly that this hath been done, not by weak and passionate princes only, but by the wisest and most politic that ever reigned; who have oftentimes joined to themselves some of their servants; whom both themselves have called friends, and allowed other. 9 Writing of george iii's old tutor, the earl of Bute, who became Prime minister, lord Macaulay wrote in 1844: "He was a favourite; and favourites have always been odious in this country.
No mere favourite had been at the head of the government since the dagger of Felton had reached the heart of the duke of Buckingham". 10 Notable favourites edit biblical figures with many elements of the favourite are david (of saul ) and Joseph (of Pharaoh) ji ru, favourite of Emperor gaozu of Han China (2nd century bc) Sejanus, favourite of Tiberius, who executed him in 31 Kapilar, a tamil. 130 Cleander, freedman favourite of Commodus, who executed him in 190 Basil I the macedonian, born a peasant, became a favourite of Michael iii, who raised him to co-emperor of the byzantine Empire. Basil later had Michael killed and succeeded as sole emperor, founding the macedonian dynasty Ibn Ammar came to the attention of the muslim ruler of the taifa of seville through his poetry and skill at chess, but tried to seize part of the kingdom for. He was succeeded by his rasher stepson Robert devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex who was executed in 1601 after an abortive coup " Les Mignons " the darlings a group of favourites of Henry iii of France Francisco goméz de sandoval y rojas, duke. Concini owed his favour to his wife's close relationship with Marie de' medici.
When that process failed, it passed a bill of attainder for his execution without trial, and it put enough pressure on Charles that to his subsequent regret, Charles signed it, and Strafford was executed in 1641. There were later minister-favourites in England, but they knew that the favour of the monarch alone was not sufficient to rule, and most also had careers in Parliament. In France, the movement was in the opposite direction. On the death of Cardinal mazarin in 1661, the 23-year-old louis xiv determined that he would rule himself, and he did not allow the delegation of power to ministers that had marked the previous 40 years. The absolute monarchy pioneered by cardinal Richelieu, mazarin's predecessor, was to be led by the monarch himself.
Louis had many powerful ministers, notably jean-Baptiste colbert, in finances, and François-Michel le tellier, marquis de louvois, the army, but overall direction was never delegated, and no subsequent French minister ever equaled the power of the two cardinals. The Spanish Habsburgs were not capable of so much energy, but when Olivares was succeeded by his nephew, luis Méndez de haro, the last real valido, the control of government into a single pair of hands had already been weakened. In literature edit favourites were the subject of much contemporary debate, some of it involving a certain amount of danger for the participants. There were a large number of English plays on the subject, amongst the best known being Marlowe's Edward ii in which piers gaveston is a leading character, and Sejanus His Fall (1603 for which Ben Jonson was called before the Privy council, accused of "Popery. Sejanus, whose career under Tiberius was vividly described by tacitus, was the subject of numerous works all around Europe. 7 Shakespeare was more cautious, and with the exceptions of Falstaff, badly disappointed in his hopes of becoming a favourite, and Cardinal Wolsey in Henry viii, he gives no major parts to favourites.
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6 Such rises from menial positions became progressively harder as the centuries progressed; one of the last families able to jump the widening chasm between servants and nobility was that of louis xiv 's valet, Alexandre bontemps, whose descendants, holding the office for a further. Queen Victoria's John Brown came much too late; the devotion of the monarch and ability to terrorize her household led to hardly any rise in social or economic position. Decline edit cardinal Richelieu, one of the most successful from the golden hibernation age of the favourite In England, the scope for giving political power to a favourite was reduced by the growing importance of Parliament. After the "mushroom" Buckingham was assassinated by john Felton in 1628, Charles I turned to Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford, who had been a leader of Parliamentary opposition to buckingham and the king, but he had become his supporter after Charles made concessions. Strafford can therefore hardly be called a favourite in the usual sense even though his relationship with Charles became very close. He was also from a well-established family, with powerful relations. After several years in power, Strafford was impeached by a parliament now very hostile to him.
She had more colourful relationships with several courtiers; the most lasting and intimate one was with Robert Dudley, earl of leicester, who was also a leading politician. 5 Only in her last decade was the position of the cecils, father and son, challenged by robert devereux, 2nd assignment Earl of Essex, when he fatally attempted a coup against the younger Cecil. Cardinal Wolsey was one figure who rose through the administrative hierarchy, but then lived extremely ostentatiously, before falling suddenly from power. In the middle Ages in particular, many royal favourites were promoted in the church, English examples including saints Dunstan and Thomas Becket ; Bishops William waynflete, robert Burnell and Walter reynolds. Cardinal Granvelle, like his father, was a trusted Habsburg minister who lived grandly, but he was not really a favourite, partly because most of his career was spent away from the monarch. Some favourites came from very humble backgrounds: Archibald Armstrong, jester to james i of England infuriated everyone else at court but managed to retire a wealthy man; unlike robert Cochrane, a stonemason (probably a senior one, more like an architect than an artisan ) who. Olivier le daim, the barber of louis xi, acquired a title and important military commands before he was executed on vague charges brought by nobles shortly after his master died, without the knowledge of the new king. It has been claimed that le daim's career was the origin of the term, as favori (the French word) first appeared around the time of his death in 1484. Privado in Spanish was older, but was later partly replaced by the term valido ; in Spanish, both terms were less derogatory than in French and English.
from the higher nobility, such. Leicester, lerma, olivares, and Oxenstierna, were often less resented and lasted longer. Successful minister-favourites also usually needed networks of their own favourites and relatives to help them carry out the work of government richelieu had his "créatures" and Olivares his "hechuras". 4 Oxenstierna and William Cecil, who both died in office, successfully trained their sons to succeed them. The favourite can often not be easily distinguished from the successful royal administrator, who at the top of the tree certainly needed the favour of the monarch, but the term is generally used of those who first came into contact with the monarch through the. Figures like william Cecil and jean-Baptiste colbert, whose accelerated rise through the administrative ranks owed much to their personal relations with the monarch, but who did not attempt to behave like grandees of the nobility, were also often successful. Elizabeth I had Cecil as Secretary of State and later Lord High Treasurer from the time she ascended the throne in 1558 until his death 40 years later.
William Shakespeare : "like favourites/ Made proud by Princes". 2, contents, rises and falls of favourites edit, favourites inevitably tended to incur the envy and loathing of the rest of the nobility, and monarchs were sometimes obliged by political pressure to dismiss or execute them; in the middle Ages nobles often rebelled in order. Too close a relationship between monarch and favourite was seen as a breach of the natural order and hierarchy spondylolisthesis of society. Since many favourites had flamboyant "over-reaching" personalities, they often led the way to their own downfall with their rash behaviour. As the opinions of the gentry and bourgeoisie grew in importance, they too often strongly disliked favourites. Dislike from all classes could be especially intense in the case of favourites who were elevated from humble, or at least minor, backgrounds by royal favour. Titles and estates were usually given lavishly to favourites, who were compared to mushrooms because they sprang up suddenly overnight, from a bed of excrement.
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For other uses of "favourite" or "favorite see. A favourite or favorite american English ) was the intimate companion of a ruler or other important person. Early modern Europe, among other times and places, the term is used of individuals delegated significant political power by a ruler. It was especially a phenomenon of the 16th and 17th centuries, when government had become too complex for many hereditary rulers with no great interest in or talent for it, and political institutions were still evolving. From 1600 to 1660 there were particular successions of all-powerful minister-favourites in much of Europe, especially in Spain, England, France and Sweden. 1, the term is also sometimes employed by writers who want to avoid terms such as " royal mistress or "friend "companion" or "lover" of either sex. Several favourites had sexual relations with the monarch (or the monarch's spouse but the feelings of the monarch for the favourite covered the full gamut from a simple faith in the favourite's resumes abilities to various degrees of emotional affection and dependence, sometimes even sexual infatuation. The term has an inbuilt element of disapproval and is defined by the. Oxford English Dictionary as "One who stands unduly high in the favour of a prince citing.