There are also refugee wellness guides for Burma, dem Rep of Congo and Somalia which are guides that offer some practical insights for those working with resettled refugees. Cultural Orientation Resource center. The cor center produces culture profiles, and briefer refugee backgrounders, on the people, history, and culture of different refugee groups to help. Service providers understand new refugee populations. Cultural Profiles include : Refugees from Burma; Meskhetian Turks; Liberians; Muslim Refugees; Hmong; Somali bantu; Bosnians; haitians; Iraqis; Iraqi kurds; Somalis; Afghans; Montagnards; Cubans ). Refugee backgrounders include : Refugees from Syria; Refugees from the democratic Republic of the congo; Refugees from, darfur; Refugees from Iraq; Eritreans in Shimelba refugee camp; Bhutanese refugees in Nepal; The kunama; The 1972 Burundians; The banyamulenge tutsi. Cultural diversity - a guide for health Professionals. The guide was developed for queensland health on the basis of research conducted by the australian Centre for International and Tropical health and Nutrition, The University of queensland, from november 1997 to April 1998. .
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Collections of resources and information, mainly external to Ethnomed, on specific groups of refugee and immigrants. Burmese, congolese, south Asian, syrian Refugee health Profile (Centers for Disease control - see also the link below to other cdc profiles). Cultural Profiles on Related Websites, cultural profiles on related websites (includes: Arab, Bhutanese, bosnian, burmese, congolese, iraqi, laotian, mien, samoan, soviet Jewish, sudanese, ukrainian and many more). Bridging Refugee youth and Children's Services (brycs). Bridging Refugee youth and Children's Services (brycs) and the Office of head Starts National Center on Cultural and Linguistic Responsiveness (ncclr) have partnered to create two cultural backgrounders focused on early childhood: Bhutanese refugee families and, refugee families from Burma. These resources provide general cultural information, while recognizing that every family is unique and that cultural practices will vary by household and by generation. Cdc refugee health Profiles, these refugee health profiles provide key health and cultural information for specific refugee groups resettling in the United States. Information is gathered learning from the world health Organization (who international Organization for Migration (iom the Office of the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (unhcr us department of State, and other sources to provide information that will help resettlement agencies, clinicians, and public health providers. Each profile has six components: priority health conditions; background; population movements; healthcare and diet in camps; medical screening of us-bound refugees; health information. Country condition Reports on Torture, the gulf coast Jewish Family and Community services (gcjfcs) has produced reports that provide historical timelines, brief descriptions of common methods of torture, and synopses of current conditions and pertinent issues related to each country featured. . The countries currently with profiles include: Colombia, haiti, cuba, iraq, Bhutan, burma, syria, dem Rep of Congo.
Münster: lit verlag;. 127; the study was done in Nordrhein-Westfalen, students were attending a leistungskurs Ingenkamp,. "Handbuch essay der Pädagogischen diagnostik". Weinheim: Beltz (Psychologie verlags Union). hollmann,.; reitzig,. "Personalauswahl im europäischen Vergleich. Specific community cultural profiles and subjects related to ethnic groups. Other Cultures, collections of resources and information, mainly external to Ethnomed, on specific groups of refugee and immigrants.
Retrieved December 19, 2016. Christian Bleher: "Wenn die kids zu gut sind: Bitte nicht für Schüler engagieren". July 30th 2008 Christian Bleher: "Kritische bayerische lehrkraft versetzt: Störerin des Schulfriedens". August 4th 2008 manfred Tücke. "Psychologie für die schule, psychologie für die schule: report Eine themenzentreirte einführung in die psychologie für (zukünftige) Lehrer". Münster lit verlag;. 127 who scored 100 on a math test, provided by the scientists manfred Tücke: "Psychologie in der literature Schule, psychologie für die schule: Eine themenzentrierte einführung in die psychologie für (zukünftige) Lehrer".
Thesis grades are by far the most critical factor while applying for job or higher education. 9 One study from 1995 found that gpas from school are a mild (weak) predictor for success in university and to a slightly better degree for success in vocational trainings, and that gpas from school or university have nearly no predictive value for job performance. 10 nevertheless, due to rarity of psychometric testing (like scholastic Aptitude test (SAT) or the medical College Admission Test (mcat) and the like in the us) the gpa is usually used as the most predictive criterion available within an application process. For job recruiting, school/university grades have a high impact on career opportunities, as independent scientifically based recruitment and assessment is used by less than 8 of the german employers (50-70 in other European countries ). 11 References edit christ, sebastian. "Super-Abiturient Felix geisler: König der Überflieger". "die oberstufe des Gymnasiums in bayern" (PDF). Retrieved December 20, 2016. "University of Stuttgart: bavarian Formula" (PDF).
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Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (november 2014) Often the german grades are treated like an interval scale to calculate means and deviations for comparisons. Despite the fact that it lacks any psychometric standardization, the grading system is often compared to normally distributed norm-referenced assessments. Citation needed Using an expected value of 3 and a standard deviation of 1, transformations into other statistical measures like percentiles, t, stanine etc. Or (like in the pisa studies ) an iq scale are then possible.
This transformation is problematic both for high school grades and for university grades: At high school level, schooling in most of Germany is selective — thus for instance a gymnasium student who is underperforming compared to his classmates is likely to still be close. At university level, the distribution is highly non-normal and idiosyncratic to the subject. Substantially more german students fail exams in university than in other countries (usually about 20-40, often even assignment more) citation needed. Grades awarded vary widely between fields of study and between universities. (In law degrees, for instance, only 10-15 of candidates get a grade better than "befriedigend".) This might be one reason for the low graduation rates at university in international comparisons, as well as for the small number of people who obtain an "Abitur" in the. However, several empirical psychological studies show that the grades awarded in Germany at school and university have a high reliability when taking up higher education and research jobs. The universities usually demand high grades in Diploma Thesis or a master Thesis.
Criticism of German grading policies edit The case of Sabine czerny edit At public schools in Germany, teachers are supposed to evaluate students against fixed course-specific criteria, but often feel implicit pressure to grade students on a curve where grades are awarded based on performance. Specifically, in the 2008 case of Sabine czerny, a bavarian primary school teacher, czerny thought that 91 of the class would be able to make a successful transition into a realschule or a gymnasium (high schools for which normally only circa 50 of bavarian children. While the parents liked this result, the educational authorities questioned czerny's grading standards. Czerny claims that her students' results stood up in cross-classroom tests; nonetheless she was transferred to another school. 4 5 czerny received much public sympathy and later went on to write a book about her experiences. Comparisons between Gymnasium and Gesamtschule (comprehensive school) edit german Gymnasiums are schools which aim to prepare students for college education.
These schools are selective, and tough grading is a traditional element of the teaching. The culture of these works against students of average academic ability who barely qualify for a gymnasium place, and who may then find themselves on the bottom of their class; these same students would have achieved better grades for the same effort if they had. 6 A study revealed that a sample of Gymnasium high school seniors of average mathematical ability 7 who chose to attend advanced college-preparatory math classes at their school leistungskurs found themselves in the very bottom of their class and had an average grade. Comprehensive school students of equal mathematical ability found themselves in the upper half of the equivalent course in their school and obtained an average grade. 8 It was found that students who graduated from a gesamtschule tend to do worse in college than their grades in high school classes would predict - and vice versa for Gymnasium students. Predictive ability edit This section possibly contains original research.
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D.) the latin versions are used for the grading. Citation needed In this case the grade (Note/Zensur) is called Prädikat. The following rough guide may be used to convert into standard German grades: summa cum laude (.0 mit Auszeichnung, "with distinction magna cum laude (1.0 sehr gut, "very good cum laude (2.0 gut, "good rite (3.0 bestanden, "passed There is no fail grade;. East Germany (1950s-1980s) edit In former East Germany, a 5-point grading scale was used until July 1991: Grade text Explanation 1 sehr gut (very good) best possible grade 2 gut (good) next-highest grade 3 befriedigend (satisfactory) average performance 4 genügend (sufficient) lowest passing grade. Therefore, a reorganized grading scale was enacted in Directive on the introduction of surgery a unified grading scale for secondary schools, extended secondary schools, special schools, vocational schools, institutes of vocational masters' education, institutes of vocational school teachers' education, institutes of vocational teachers' further education, institutes. This directive was unchangedly effective from September 1, 1960, to august 25, 1993. For all of the different subjects there were further recommendations with even more specific descriptions in relation to the general grading scale. These particular comments should help the teacher to grade the achievements of the students as objectively as possible. This scale is identical to the current Austrian grading scale.
Conversion of grades edit a matter of particular interest for those considering studying abroad or even enrolling full-time in a german university is the conversion of grades. While the below information may prove useful, it is recommended to contact the interested university directly to inquire which method they use to convert grades. Modified bavarian formula edit a number of systems exist for the conversion of grades from other countries into german grades. One such system, used by most universities in North Rhine-westphalia and bavaria citation needed, is called the "Modified bavarian Formula 3 xNmaxNdNmaxNmin31displaystyle xN_mathrm max -N_mathrm d over N_mathrm max -N_mathrm min 31 where xdisplaystyle x german grade, nmaxdisplaystyle N_mathrm max best possible score in foreign. The resulting value is rounded to the next German grade (e.g. 1.6 is rounded to the german grade.7 and.4 is rounded.3). For resulting values between two german grades, training the score is rounded to the better grade (e.g. 2.5 is rounded to the german grade.3 and.15 is rounded.0). Latin grades edit sometimes, esp.
which lies substantially above average. This is because the grades 2 ( gut ) and 1 ( sehr gut ) are extremely rare, so an additional grade was created below gut to increase differentiation. Every grade is converted into points similarly to the gymnasium system described above, starting at 18 points (excellent) down to 0 points (poor). 4 points is the lowest pass grade. Overview edit german Grade system Percentage citation needed Grades by education Descriptor Conversion to the us system (varies with school/subject) primary lower secondary (1st-10th grade) upper secondary ( Gymnasium, 11th-12/13th grade) tertiary ( Fachhochschule universität ) points.7 "sehr gut" (excellent: an outstanding achievement).0. Points.7 "gut" (good: an achievement that exceeds the average requirements considerably).5 2 11 points.0.3 2- 10 points.3. Points.7 "befriedigend" (satisfactory: an achievement that fulfils average requirements).7 3 8 points.0.3 3- 7 points.3. Points.0 "ausreichend" (sufficient: an achievement that fulfils the requirements despite flaws).5 4 5 points. Points.0 "mangelhaft" / "ungenügend" / "nicht bestanden" (insufficient / failed: an achievement that does not fulfil requirements due to major flaws).0 5 3 points 5 2 points 5- 1 point 6 0 points * This conversion scheme is intended as a guideline,.
Often a more granular scale of "1-" (equal.25 "1-2" (.5 "2" (.75 etc. Is used; sometimes even decimal grading (1.0,.1,.2 and so on) is applied. In end-of-year report cards, only unmodified integer grades may be used; in some regions they are written in text form. Pedagogic grading edit, teachers who teach Grundschule (primary school) or Sonderschule (special education school) are allowed to use "pädagogische noten" pedagogic grades. Thus if a student tries very hard, but still does very poorly compared to the rest of the class, the teachers are allowed to give them good grades because they tried so hard. Citation needed, upper secondary education edit, in the final classes of, gymnasium schools (11th to 12th/13th grade) the grades are converted to numbers points where "1" equals 15 points and "6" equals 0 points. Since 1 exists in this system, theoretically a final Abitur engelsk grade of less than.6 is possible and such grades are used in an informal setting, although officially any student with less than.0 will be awarded.0 Abitur. 1 When the point system is used, a grade of 4 (5 points) is the lowest passing grade, and 4- (4 points) the highest failing grade.
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Germany uses a 6-point grading scale (GPA) to evaluate the performance of school children. Grades vary from 1 (excellent, sehr gut ) to 6 (insufficient, ungenügend ). In the final classes of German. Gymnasium schools that prepare for university studies, a point system is used with 15 points being healthy the best grade and 0 points the worst. The percentage causes the grade can vary from teacher to teacher. Contents, grades by education edit, primary and lower secondary education edit, in primary and lower secondary education (1st to 10th grade german school children receive grades based on a 6-point grading scale ranging from 1 (excellent, sehr gut ) to 6 (insufficient, ungenügend ). Variations on the traditional six grade system allow for awarding grades suffixed with " and "-". To calculate averages of suffixed grades, they are assigned fractional values, where 1.0, 1-.3, 2.7, 2.0, 2-.3 and. As schools are governed by the states, not by the federal government, there are slight differences.